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00:00:00 Why should anyone become interested in audio jolly. Well you know what I didn't and.
00:00:09 In general also plate tectonics kind of US important for every single on this planet.
00:00:14 So we would receive mineral resources where there was drinking water whether it's wine or. Rocks for the road.
00:00:25 It's all about geology even diamonds and so forth so.
00:00:29 It's one of the most important ingredients we have in his plan is to get all of you for tourists and the mountains
00:00:37 and so forth.
00:00:38 So I can hardly think about a missing which is not real time to get all the down across study all that he was formed in
00:00:46 the past where we are looking. When you look at mountains in Norway for instance the cell.
00:00:51 Mountain sexily form some four hundred million years ago.
00:00:54 So we're looking at the past every day when you look out your window. It is de caressed her stick of the earth.
00:01:03 It's the curse drakes I think of it. This is why look all planets you know it's to get all of the on the landscape.
00:01:13 Which is to cut tourist takes also for.
00:01:17 What made you become so interested in this type of science while it's probably coincidence what you do in life.
00:01:24 I know when I started studying I I used to prefer mathematics and physics but.
00:01:32 When I started studying I want to do something outside looked in a catalogue one that had big stick.
00:01:38 Catalog which subject you want to study and so forth and I saw what I didn't understand.
00:01:43 It said geophysics it was to A G U K physics understood.
00:01:49 Sawtelle I'll do Dot so but first geophysics very brode I could be better all of your snog of him but also.
00:01:57 Just minute he feels actually started first. Taking courses in oceanography but I got a little bored with that.
00:02:04 So then I switched to what we call geo magnetism and particularly how.
00:02:10 Not so much about the first one of the field today is that how it's been in the past
00:02:15 and how it's perceived up in rocks rocks because it's rocks. They preserve how damning that I feel was in the past.
00:02:23 So that's caught my interest originally. Is there anything specific that you really want to know. Well as a lot.
00:02:31 I want to know. And of course to change through time when you start off when you know very little you know.
00:02:38 It's some sort of incremental but the more you.
00:02:41 That's how I started working maybe just would want a continent and then you want to do more of them
00:02:46 and then you want to do all of them and then you also want to look beneath them.
00:02:50 So what you want to know kind of change with time is as small as you learn there are barriers all the time like ten
00:02:58 years ago many barriers which I know gone and and you're looking for folks for new barriers to solve.
00:03:06 But anything specific at this moment. At this moment.
00:03:13 Well what I mean where we were last decade Israeli too to see how do the mantle below the crust interact with the
00:03:21 plates and so forth. The Dr now. Trying to do something new.
00:03:27 Again you know climate and pallor climate is very popular and
00:03:33 but I really want to try to understand how the climate on planet has changed over a let's say the last billion yes that
00:03:40 the long term variation and not just a short term variation. You know in the last few hundred.
00:03:47 Yeah so a few million Yes I really want to understand what controls to big packed on and. And that's a big challenge.
00:03:55 If you go back in history. Could you give a sort of brief history of. In geological terms direct.
00:04:02 Why does it tend so far you go back to maybe the easiest is to go back to that say Tree hundred million.
00:04:08 Yes that's very short remember the Earth has four point six billion but if you go back to Tree hundred million.
00:04:15 Yes we had what many a familiar we had a super continent.
00:04:20 At that time were most of the continents with just one mass which we called the Pangea.
00:04:26 And we know very well still things we don't know how that's involved true time so it was one continent
00:04:37 and then that say about two hundred million. Yes you go to central Atlantic.
00:04:40 Started starting breaking to supercontinent apart.
00:04:44 So it was North America
00:04:45 and Africa departing from it later on in the South Atlantic open a little younger one hundred
00:04:53 and twenty million yes that's in my part of the world with Norway and.
00:04:58 In the Northeast Atlanta only started some fifty five million Yes ago so.
00:05:03 So we do a lot of research to see how did this supercontinent break apart into why did it break apart just even why did
00:05:12 all the continents assemble into one supercontinent they do that occasionally maybe every half a billion year
00:05:20 or something to come together and they go apart so that's part of some sort of a long term cyclists on our planet.
00:05:32 But let's just get back to the history of Earth and what's so important about Earth
00:05:40 or difference that in terms of our solar system and the other planets.
00:05:45 Well as medicine but again geology Plate Tectonics is unique.
00:05:48 It's the only planet we know in the solar system at least the kind of earth like stony like to what we call the to rest
00:05:56 O. Planets who has plate tectonics. So that makes us different. From from all of them.
00:06:01 What is Plate Tectonics got to simply got to play that we are Plate Tectonics is kind of simple in some way.
00:06:08 If it means we have about a dozen big plates many small plates and they move in relation to each other.
00:06:17 And also where Plate Tectonics all the action should it's on played boundaries where teams goes apart
00:06:22 and we have magma coming up or when things collide one played Go.
00:06:27 You need to not only call it's abduction and you can a big county chain earthquakes alone a modern
00:06:32 but the main thing is all the action you know in terms of seismicity vulcanism
00:06:37 and so forth is happening on the plate boundaries and. No other planets.
00:06:45 That I'm aware of into solar system could be on other planets exoplanets but we don't know.
00:06:50 So we're unique in that way.
00:06:54 And we're here on Iceland and here especially in Iceland you can really sort of almost experience that
00:07:01 when it's kind of double interesting because it's sitting on wanted to play boundaries where all the action is sort of
00:07:08 should be a lot of volcanism but normally. Just to spreading into ocean is beneath sea level but here we are above.
00:07:17 Dust because.
00:07:19 It's not just on a plate boundary wetting spread apart
00:07:22 but we actually have a deep plume coming from very deep in the mountain.
00:07:27 Which is coming almost vertically up
00:07:30 and it's interfering with disparate would it would have played boundary have that's got that's why we get is buoyancy
00:07:37 from beneath and we have this elevation so.
00:07:40 So I swam and one out of place on the planet are unique in the way dot you see this you see sea floor spreading.
00:07:49 It's like dry on land you actually see it instead of being in the ocean so Iceland this is very very special.
00:07:57 And why is plate tectonics so important. Well you know. Well first of all it's visually it's.
00:08:07 Our landscape it's a rock the result of it but also our natural resources.
00:08:13 Basically all of what we consume of of minerals oil and gas and so forth.
00:08:19 Are the product of plate tectonics so without it. There wouldn't be any cars.
00:08:26 We need something to build these tanks and we need something to fuel it maybe in the future we can have autumn means
00:08:31 but still you need you need minerals even if you want to turn it to batteries and so forth.
00:08:37 Yet that's extracted from rocks again and. It's get all a G.
00:08:40 and Plate tectonics to actually in some way you can you can say.
00:08:47 Gives us all the resources to do what we want to understand it.
00:08:51 The strange thing about it is that sort of we are living on a recycling planet in terms of it's continuously changing
00:08:58 continuously changing and that's why when I said Would you mind yachting with that. Yeah.
00:09:04 Yeah so it's that the surface in the landscape because of Plate Tectonics is continuously changing of course it's slow
00:09:13 but let's say over a few hundred million. Yes you have a totally different surface again and.
00:09:19 When you look at the other planets. Do you see you really do old history in the beginning you know you can see.
00:09:26 More than four billions years of history because in the early.
00:09:32 In the early beginning in the solar system plan to reform measure
00:09:36 and you had heavy bombardment impact you have craters I we were and you see them on other planets
00:09:43 but on Earth they all gone because everything has been recycled
00:09:47 and would play to tonic it's being kind of pushed into the mantle when one plate is. Pushed beneath and out of one.
00:09:54 So you know resurfacing the landscape is changing all the time. Like.
00:10:01 In one parrot let's say Greenland was totally underwater now it's above water and all this is changing.
00:10:07 It's a dynamic system all the time. Because of plate tectonics.
00:10:11 What do I say be just be a static system where everything was stuck where they are.
00:10:17 You have been studying plates it's honestly a lot of almost. What do we not know about plate tectonics.
00:10:24 While it's a lot we don't know and. For instance when before.
00:10:30 Plate Tectonics when it was called continental drift which they're going to propose more than one hundred years ago.
00:10:37 Various reasons why people didn't like it
00:10:40 but let's say physicists said for instance all we have no drop what is to drive a mechanism how it is played moving
00:10:46 around. And it's interesting. Even when Plate Tectonics and late sixty's.
00:10:51 It's like people stop asking that question why are what are the driving forces.
00:10:57 And so Plate Tectonics is really just we just look at is a little lead on the planet with just plates
00:11:04 and we can map them out.
00:11:05 We can see how fast they're moving and how to collide we can reconstruct them back in time
00:11:10 but we don't really have a full understanding how this is interacting with the mantle so that's how is to convection in
00:11:20 the mantle Benita place being important in driving duce things but also
00:11:26 when slaps are going in there is also a driving force of from Plate Tectonics itself from a slab going in
00:11:32 and pushing the continents went it so it's this interaction between what is driven from below
00:11:38 and what is driven from the plate itself which would which we don't really know in detail. We don't know why.
00:11:45 No we don't know why.
00:11:47 So that's that's keeps us scientists Bisi you know it's a cool set SEC Korea hostage ribbon you know why.
00:11:56 It's like it's to life on other planets we want to know why it's just. Happening.
00:12:01 Is its sound system and if you can read you have to look at the earth.
00:12:05 I mean you have to corn you know it as if the continents are floating on a sort of heat mass.
00:12:12 Thank you describe a little bit how thick. Should I imagine.
00:12:16 Yes consonant Well normally when we talk about crust it differs. And if you are beneath a continent.
00:12:23 The crust is about thirty five forty kilometer but if you're in the ocean.
00:12:28 It's only May be well under spreading what you'd Serah the whole mountain is coming up
00:12:32 but it's much send about five kilometer or so
00:12:35 but that's not a moving play it's also the upper part of the mantle we call the standards for.
00:12:41 Makes what we call tectonic plates. So you can say to tectonic plates the continental continent.
00:12:50 To twenty plates are about that's a tree hundred kilometer or something.
00:12:54 So that's about to plates and then moving over a part of the mantle because of. The temperature pressure you.
00:13:02 It's more viscous staff so do use more rigid stiff plates can can move on this amount of material.
00:13:11 So you can you can think about a mountain it's slowly convecting system over the last time
00:13:19 but this convection could maybe be in the order of a tree for five centimeter per year.
00:13:25 So it's a slow grinding process. Now we're here in Iceland and here you see that this is you know.
00:13:32 And then given how to drink you know. Well you know if you have a little I don't know. If you want some more. It.
00:13:55 Very good. Is really a long. So we are here in Iceland here it's quite apparent that you know this.
00:14:05 He just didn't ask coming out there actually. Yeah and when I asked when we.
00:14:14 Because of this it's unique because it is what we call the Iceland plume. And also how they are linked.
00:14:22 What to feed back with plate tectonics. What's just been proven so well there is some.
00:14:28 Like I I slam
00:14:30 and how why it's another example maybe I was about some might say it was about fifty of these I don't say maybe about
00:14:36 twenty five of you have these what we call deep plumes who actually come all the way from.
00:14:43 The very deepest mountable two thousand one hundred kilometer down
00:14:47 and we can actually followed we can see them we called seismic tomography
00:14:52 or in that you don't do it using seismology and.
00:14:57 Iceland is one of these who comes all the way and one of the same kind of outstanding problem.
00:15:04 How does dece maybe twenty five or Turkey the plumes how. How do they.
00:15:11 How do they start their journey from the deeper it and how can it influence plate tectonics.
00:15:17 For instance is also one of the outstanding issues that we're working on but we think we are we.
00:15:25 We get so little handle on this is that what you call super Filipinos that originally at the moment is not a super
00:15:34 volcano it's even though it's big and there's a lot of flux in volume but when it started when
00:15:39 when these what we call hot spots my column.
00:15:44 Normally in the literature when they start the first time
00:15:47 when they're wrapped day Devery often linked to us really massive. Popularist you can call them super.
00:15:56 Will Cain zero but in the end. Signs language we. Call them Large Igneous Provinces or lips that's kind of that and.
00:16:05 So when when they first started. It's.
00:16:09 You get a catastrophic now thing of up a mountain and you've got a really big Super Bowl candle
00:16:15 and I still in the hot spot started like that but that's about sixty million years ago. That went down.
00:16:22 He didn't wasn't just confined to it to a little island like Iceland actually covered vast areas of Greenland Scottland
00:16:31 island a little entered in the we didn't show up so it may be had a radius of something like fifteen hundred kilometer
00:16:37 maybe two thousand kilometer So that that's what we call a super volcano and you do not want to be around.
00:16:44 When one of these erupts are still of importance for us about it. Some of or it might happen again.
00:16:53 But let's say in the last five hundred million S.
00:16:55 and There's only Turkey known episodes and the youngest one you find and in North America.
00:17:02 It's called the Columbia River basalts about fifty million years old
00:17:06 but the hot spot it's linked to like Iceland is what we call Yellowstone.
00:17:12 And often they make some sort of dishonest a scenario if you have another yell of sed that Yellowstone is a rap thing
00:17:21 again. But Yellowstone is tiny in terms of aerial distribution which produced as Columbia or super volcano.
00:17:30 Maybe about two hundred thousand square meter.
00:17:33 For comparison one inside very trying to fifty million years ago was five million square meter and that's
00:17:41 when actually affected live.
00:17:43 On only on Earth and maybe ninety percent of all life died because of the super Will Cain so.
00:17:52 If it happens again it's definitely something to worry about the quiet filings probably have some very violent and.
00:18:00 Luckily very aware. It's an interesting specific area is diamonds or a science. Yes that.
00:18:12 And this is kind of linked to the same story we have this. Up I've been working man e S.
00:18:19 Which is hotspots and super volcano us and try to kind of reconstruct them back in time.
00:18:26 And when we did that we noticed they came from certain area us. Deep down.
00:18:31 Maybe started with the dinosaur because I mean yes he's using it now. Yeah yeah so. So Dr Diamond they are so.
00:18:41 You're going to find I'm in sync continental crust
00:18:43 and you're sitting at great depths of course it's you need the right pressure
00:18:49 and temperature to actually get to form a diamond.
00:18:52 So they are sitting at one hundred eighty two hundred kilometer adapt
00:18:58 but they are brought up to the surface by something called Kimball lights which which is also.
00:19:04 It's a flow war material coming from deep it's probably also very deep and then you pick up the diamonds
00:19:12 and bring them to the surface so on the surface you can if you find it will be called Kimball lights.
00:19:18 It's a big circle looks like a crater.
00:19:21 And that's just where all or most of the diamond exploration is because they bring so.
00:19:26 Kimball I select the elevators of diamonds and they come very fast. Because if you bring a diamond up very slowly.
00:19:35 It turned into graphite which we use for a pencil and then it has no value and no real value so direct.
00:19:42 From about one hundred eighty kilometers depth you bring a diamond to the surface. Maybe in three hours.
00:19:49 So you don't want to be it suggests will come very fast it will be a big splash of water and C O two when when
00:19:56 when it's brought to the surface but it's a long time. That. Luckily doesn't happen everyday items.
00:20:03 But in fact you say this filled with diamonds. So my desk and we.
00:20:11 We know where we should find them and
00:20:14 and we have an idea where they should be in relation to the mountain for these these hot hot fluxes to bring them up so
00:20:22 we have a reasonably good idea about where they are and your things you can mind them. Well you know not down there.
00:20:31 How far do you have to go down. Well you have to go two hundred eighty kilometer if you want to mind.
00:20:36 I'm in C two but so we say again nature you know is is doing us a favor. It's bringing peace to things to the surface.
00:20:46 And you also are very deep into a pond you know magnetism. Trying to.
00:20:56 Establish a new revolution in that you know what body oh you know does your body. Plan to go give what is free.
00:21:05 Do you explain what these reflections are and what the next was British and should be. Well.
00:21:13 I always say there are three revolutions and geoscience so far
00:21:16 and it started in one thousand nine hundred nineteen fifteen with very going to and.
00:21:21 But he died very unhappy in the twenty's nobody believed them and. You had to wait to one thousand nine hundred sixty S.
00:21:28 Before. For people to come up this issue again.
00:21:33 When they had a second revolution off a service oriented internet tell shortly what what his wrist producing was empty.
00:21:44 If you. Joy of thought about it when nobody of course knows. That OK. Nobody knows.
00:21:52 Of course what a revolution is are so good to know you just sort of briefly describe it or so. Let me ask this again.
00:22:00 You're a specialized in pounding mechanism and I want to sort of well bring forth a fortune for Lucian in Johnny.
00:22:09 What are those revolutions.
00:22:12 Sort of fresh revolution more than one hundred yes ago about nineteen twelve nineteen fifteen with Vaga and.
00:22:19 What he suggested if you look at our Today the continents are spread around.
00:22:24 So what he said once upon a time but he didn't really say in million yes.
00:22:28 You have to start guessing here he said once upon a time all the continents were together in one super continent
00:22:36 and he could he actually didn't call it Pangea what you know nest was called all
00:22:41 but he called it who continent he was German C.
00:22:45 Said once upon a time to write together and in quite recent time actually.
00:22:49 And what we called tertiary de de de broken parts but he called it continental drift and they just stopped moving.
00:22:59 But you know he didn't know about oceans they were never mapped out what would they look like they were just plowing
00:23:05 through the ocean and driving forces was unknown and so forth that that and that's a real important revolution.
00:23:14 But to understand the oceans too was not just continents that's why this was called continental drift it was messing
00:23:20 about oceans.
00:23:22 But in the early sixty's
00:23:23 when they had mapped out the ocean they saw from the two miter days Saudi's what we now know it's spreading axis
00:23:28 between plates and mapped is out.
00:23:30 So So Def somebody down figured that the might have been magma coming up from the mountain
00:23:36 and pushing plates aside so done you also had this aspect of ocean they wasn't just continent.
00:23:41 It was a mechanism and they've been pushing plates apart and you're pushing the oceans making new. Oceanic crust.
00:23:50 That was in the early sixty's. But it told Revolution.
00:23:54 What we call plate tectonics was actually in the middle eight sixty S and.
00:24:00 And that's what play take to instead of continental drift just comes in is moving around.
00:24:05 It's called plates because it's a mixture of continents and Osi on a crust and they have played boundaries
00:24:12 and they put the mathematics on to describe that you have a rotation pole somewhere
00:24:18 and it's rotating would have been you know.
00:24:21 The last two and so forth and when you got that mathematics on it and you could then you can run it forward.
00:24:27 I could look at Earth today we know how it's moving I can predict what it would look like and fifty million S.
00:24:33 or I can predict go back in time what it did look hundred million years ago and so far so that's was the fourth one
00:24:40 but again. Plate Tectonics is what I will call a second emetics here is just describing what these plates.
00:24:49 Are doing on top but what what I'm interested in what are the driving forces
00:24:55 and how how just they fit in with nice hot spots and plumes you know is to relationship between them
00:25:03 and it's more of making a grand Terry maybe in physics.
00:25:07 You can you know a physicist been dreaming about unifying quantum mechanics with with general relativity.
00:25:14 You know making it into one grand. You know.
00:25:19 Terry you know in some way that's what we want to do with it we want to we want to link to full understanding what's
00:25:26 happening on the surface. What's happening beneath us all these heat and the pollutants and so forth into one unifying.
00:25:34 Terry. So that's where we end. And counted a name.
00:25:39 We're put on this program what we call the ninth of dynamics of we get enough into this as well.
00:25:46 So that's kind of the grand vision. So the sort revolution waltz plate tectonics or.
00:25:55 What that was the third eye was the third one. And therefore it's gone. To be.
00:26:00 That's what we used in a month of dynamics. And that's will be when we fully understand this planet.
00:26:07 Hopefully in my lifetime. Because that's what you want. Yes I want but it's. We still have some way to go.
00:26:17 Suppose you succeed in doing that. What would that mean in terms of humanity in terms of knowing about the earth.
00:26:24 What would mean for us. Well out of what I mean so much for. The normal person in the street. I don't know.
00:26:34 I'm driven by Korea also T. To understand and. Also been interesting in history. I want to see how things change.
00:26:41 And how it will be in the future. But what has you know enormous practical value for for.
00:26:51 The ordinary human being that's a different story but we did learn something about.
00:26:57 Well the future of Europe what way can we learn. It it will.
00:27:08 It everything tells us about the future of the earth and we could have predicted a problem. Do you suffer so.
00:27:17 One from these model we can protect saying that we talk about towns and maybe fifty
00:27:22 and one hundred million US prediction you know so.
00:27:26 So that's why it doesn't have that in the media you know it doesn't have an effect for what's going to happen next.
00:27:32 Jaron accent or if for what we have doing way we're talking about when a time scale which for most humans is you.
00:27:40 You can't count so much so. But a generous thing is you want to relate it to for example climate.
00:27:47 OK I'm saying yes the long term climate is why we've got some reasonably good control and that's where we'll.
00:27:55 We will see how we can understand long term climate because that. Another thing we do not fully understand.
00:28:04 But we want we have well we live in an ice age and in a now do we have. Basically what we are and in a cold or ice.
00:28:15 House conditions. But that's only happened three times in the last six hundred million S.
00:28:21 It's very unusual the way we're talking about global warming and we're afraid of the greenhouse gas
00:28:27 and too much C O two in atmosphere
00:28:30 but that is actually the normal statements for our planet for the last six hundred million.
00:28:36 Yes that has been to normal condition much higher C O two from sea levels but a time much higher warmer.
00:28:46 So we actually live in an judicial time.
00:28:49 Actually to all region wide the planet goes into an ice age it's still heavily debated. Also among.
00:28:58 Climate experts so that's something I would kind of try to get a handle on.
00:29:04 Let's let's recall this you say we are living here.
00:29:08 That's at what you want to act as I feel like to sort of make that into its story you just say we're in an ice age
00:29:19 but it might be interesting can indeed tell because we're in an ice age and in fact it has already happened.
00:29:27 Let me because you say we are in an ice age what do you mean. Well it's generally it's a cold climate.
00:29:36 And also generally know C O two in atmosphere because to to to go into a cold climate or an ice age you.
00:29:45 You need to have low C O two atmospheric C O two.
00:29:52 And that's house and we can see of course
00:29:55 when you are an ice as you find you find in the Glasgow record you you find evidence.
00:30:00 But as you're finding glacial deposits alter and if you look back in time when.
00:30:06 We have to go back to about three hundred million.
00:30:09 Yes when we had the previous one
00:30:10 and before that it's about forty fifty million years so we know from the Gloucester record when you had these things
00:30:17 and climate scientists would without really knowing the reason would simply say oh we have done because we had low C O
00:30:27 two that I'd like to know why did we. Why why do we have just fluctuation in C O two and you know it.
00:30:35 I find as unsatisfactorily just and said oh we've got an ice age because to C O two level was was low.
00:30:41 You know so you had the conditions to to to get glaciers and so forth and so.
00:30:50 That's something I would like to push you because in fact you're saying we're living in an extra ordinary ordinary time
00:30:57 we are really living in extraordinary time. And that's something.
00:31:01 You know in on this debate about manmade climate change should assign a when I try to teach students.
00:31:10 Whether that is correct on authors problems but I also wanted to leave my lecture room with a full understanding.
00:31:17 We live in a very unique time.
00:31:21 And this is not how our planet normally was it was much what we lived in greenhouse condition with much higher C O two
00:31:29 levels could have been ten fifteen times higher than what we have now
00:31:35 and we don't really we don't really understand if C O two fluctuation true time is that something you would like to
00:31:44 serve Christ or that's something and I have a. It's very complicated to do it but again.
00:31:52 Plate Tectonics become important we have to know exactly. Because the distribution of continents.
00:32:00 And oceans through time distribution of where you have subduction sounds and and you. You have volcano us.
00:32:08 As social web because magnetism is an important thing and we have to map it out in detail
00:32:13 and then I have to know I have to know the Paoli Godfrey in super detail have to know where all the played boundaries
00:32:20 How much potential vulcanism can you have
00:32:23 and can we calculate that into two to use it to give an idea about how much C O two is released from this.
00:32:30 So again that needs stream really precise knowledge of how to hug the plates and under distribution of continents
00:32:39 and oceans through time. So that's my big gold and I want to do that for a last belly and yes. Because also.
00:32:48 What we call Precambrian at about seven hundred million.
00:32:52 Yes you go down there are some postulates that actually made the whole earth froze to call it a snowball or it.
00:33:00 Actually dent Tarata even that quatre had to play shows. So that's definitely a very spectacular planet at that time.
00:33:08 It's controversial to toss some evidence just can happened
00:33:12 but it again is typical just to say who we had low C O two level to permit just to do this. So. That's my kind of.
00:33:23 Next goal of say for five five ten years something that I don't need a lot of young. Post-doc Ph D.
00:33:33 Students have to plan his out so
00:33:37 when you surprised by let's say just drank just the earth somehow did that you know you can have all those fluctuations
00:33:44 and it's earth survive something. The dust we know die but the problem. That's so interesting about global warming.
00:33:54 Is that it is going quite fast. You know you every ten Yeah you can follow a curve in. And though the variation.
00:34:01 That sense eleven is quite small compared to you know it on the one hundred million.
00:34:07 Yes you had a sea level was more than two hundred mi to hire that it's called quite fast bits
00:34:14 but if we can get law school time we don't know where we can measure at that position we can to do one hundred year we
00:34:21 could be my date rocks maybe just a million Yes or something.
00:34:24 So it's very hard for us to see how fast actually natural processes are compared to what we can match show right now
00:34:32 since the Industrial Revolution so that I have a feeling the planet is pretty good.
00:34:41 You know how thing itself saving at that dar feedback mechanism if you do something you.
00:34:46 There's a feedback in some system so. So maybe if we are positive it will. Take care of itself unless it goes too fast.
00:34:57 It actually run out of control. It's something you worry or.
00:35:01 I'm not worried about I'm not sleepless about but that's also because many other things on this planet.
00:35:09 You should worry about. I'm not going to ask or. What what.
00:35:17 No but I think that can be overpopulation of running out of resource us and. Sometimes I say you know it. Humans.
00:35:26 Animals normally kill because they have to eat and.
00:35:30 I say humans are probably wanted a fruitless animal you know we sometimes some kill just to kill you know
00:35:37 and I'm more worried about that global warming to be honest. And.
00:35:44 Let's talk a little bit about your institute in the way you say and have your students around
00:35:53 and you have a sort of reputation taking students on a nice trip and make signs nice for.
00:36:00 Yeah but maybe one of the most important for me for me is to.
00:36:05 For educating young and stimulating young post oxen for them to get a grant to me to become a professor themselves so.
00:36:15 So for me it was to social aspect it's not you know you talk to your professor and you close the door
00:36:23 and you don't always been very. To social interaction would students and postdocs so.
00:36:29 So I take them on both Crucis and. Actually we do it at least once a year. And since I'm in Austin.
00:36:39 I would do from Austria to keel in Germany also Copenhagen so but we have conferences
00:36:45 and many times we like to young percent so it's not the old professors there's concerts and a back
00:36:51 and we let a young people run the show and. Feel they're important and we were we always so very social.
00:37:00 And celebrate science also and celebrate science and discuss science
00:37:04 and so forth because the brain never stops working. So. It doesn't switch off at five o'clock.
00:37:12 What about the relation between whiskey and Yalit your tunes you know that's really important minutes.
00:37:21 And says I would train by Scotties get all of this and feel gone it is a very slow.
00:37:27 It is very so social compared to many other sciences. And after a good twelve fourteen hours a day.
00:37:34 So it's good to have a nice single malt whiskey to know.
00:37:46 It's somehow you could say we should know to Earth's history by now.
00:37:51 I mean even studying it for years and years and somehow we do not even seem to be close.
00:38:00 Oh I see I think we get closer. Lisa and what our group are working on I think we met a lot of progress.
00:38:10 A lot of saying.
00:38:12 Only ten years ago I wrote a proposal to solve something and I actually didn't have a clue how to do it
00:38:18 and suddenly out of the blue we. We saw the answers and we moved on and saw.
00:38:25 That's there is a lot of say We don't know a lot of phenomena a lot of studies.
00:38:31 You will never know ever saying and that's done you don't need us any longer.
00:38:37 If we if we know I actually had a professor once who. Very often. Claim to me.
00:38:43 Now I know I was saying and I looked at him and said And if you're retired
00:38:48 and if you know ever say you know what's the point is it's all all this issue.
00:38:55 You don't know who drives us forward and. Careers to drive and science.
00:39:03 You know even seem to have discovered a new continent. That's what I read. Oh did I lost confidence yeah.
00:39:12 Yeah that's kind of. It's a start of a little hobby a really end of the week. We started wondering.
00:39:21 And the Indian Ocean isn't all that. There's a lot of vulcanism and hosp walked and.
00:39:28 Plumes and so forth but we started wondering if they could actually be some continental fragments.
00:39:34 Actually which was buried by these large busts.
00:39:37 So so we discovered the first one and need to Marie to us which is several Cannick island very young.
00:39:46 Only nine million years of love us but we sink now Doris it's partly covering an old continent.
00:39:54 Of continental crust Benita it. And. That can aerated a lot.
00:40:00 For me it was like a hobby project that's all we got
00:40:05 and never got so much media attention because to Sis you know lost continents.
00:40:11 That has some sort of feeling for for people and. Actually got so bad.
00:40:16 Would I was found by journalists
00:40:18 and people wanted to film that I actually had to take three days off I just went home and shocked a phone off. And..
00:40:26 But it was from some. MEMBER I was interviewed by B.B.C. And they wrote a little story and the next day.
00:40:34 I got an e-mail from B.B.C. and They said wow you got one point six million who clicked on this interview with you.
00:40:43 But then it was the bad news. She said but it was only the second highest you will beaten by the Oscars.
00:40:49 Unfortunately it was to Oscar winners that day that she said we. And also in nature.
00:40:58 That they wrote a little review about our paper
00:41:01 and it was to ten most read paper in Nature that year so I remember we were competing with all other sciences medicine
00:41:09 and whatever you know. Sue we were quite proud of that thing. And the explanation.
00:41:17 Well the explanation is send a little complicated but it's not very complicated. Mary chose today it is simple.
00:41:27 Counting Island sitting out in Indian Ocean but.
00:41:30 If we go back in time this little fragments section apart Madagascar which is.
00:41:36 Towards Africa was a little fragments of the mother Gus covered it.
00:41:41 It was one of these plumes we come in and broke his little piece away and then he was later or covered with lava
00:41:49 and it was just parked in the middle of nowhere
00:41:52 but you know there was one island even even even even Darwin had seen that you know say shout.
00:42:00 You know that's that's an island in the middle of the ocean and that's. That's a continental crust piece of fragments.
00:42:06 But it's not fully it's only partly covered by younger a lot of us so that they were actually walking on real ground I
00:42:14 So in some way that's kind of sport our interest you know we have this say Shell is a little micro continent in the
00:42:23 middle of nowhere. Could it be more do stuff.
00:42:25 And then we also did a similar story for Iceland where so we introduce another complication twice
00:42:35 and not only it's sitting on a on a plate boundaries breading we have a plume coming all the way from the home of the
00:42:42 boundary. But it's also a piece of continent and fragments beneath Iceland as well just to make it very complicated.
00:42:51 It sounds as if the Earth's crust is just sort of cracked piece of you know all kind of other stuff
00:42:59 but it's the sort of percolate I call it a possible you know you have to get all these pieces together
00:43:08 and I mean morally complicated and I mean but interesting.
00:43:17 Yeah OK I'm going to have some I want to assure you
00:43:19 when you say they did it well there's one thing I think I would like to do one not one that's more an explanation I
00:43:26 think and could you maybe sort of disc. Try to describe how this is working.
00:43:31 I mean in terms of OK you have this first consonants and then you have you know it breaks up and things come up
00:43:38 and they go down just in a sort of brief story
00:43:41 and I do that so could you could you try to describe how actually sort of interest of almost a filmmaker a pose how
00:43:51 this is working. Actually from break up. Oh yeah yeah yeah. So you have Yeah we start with the first continent Yeah.
00:44:01 So you know and so well that the way I look at it is when we had this one supercontinents Tunji.
00:44:11 And they question how do you break it. OK so you have these plates together and the way we look upon it.
00:44:20 This is where this heat from plumes coming from from deep. So that.
00:44:26 So the air coming under neat parts of this super continent.
00:44:31 And actually weak and the crust in the next he breaks things apart
00:44:36 and yeah you might have interrupted maybe it's good to start with the core. OK I'm at the end of it.
00:44:42 Let's take go from the inside out. Yeah OK just as a sort of you have an idea. OK so on.
00:44:51 In a very deep mantle on the core on top of the core they're actually there are.
00:44:57 But what we have found are the two areas of of Hotta material that don't like rocks so why are probably very primordial
00:45:06 Nemi from the origin of the planet and. From these from them. Audience of these piles of material.
00:45:15 This is where he's proves develop like to I simply. So and they get triggered by some mechanism. So they start slowly.
00:45:27 Ascending and that's a very slow process that could be twenty to thirty million years.
00:45:32 When when they reach the surface. And they're hotter than normal now. It leads to a catastrophic nothing.
00:45:41 And they find themselves into cracks and so forth and actually breaks plate apart is how we look upon.
00:45:48 How do these plumes are coming slowly are up and they break plates apart.
00:45:55 So that's how we would and that's probably how you broke this. Supercontinent the path because it.
00:46:02 It wasn't didn't break all at once it was in different areas and you can also why did it start there
00:46:09 and not there in the before before it breaks like five million years before that they were always hit by one of these.
00:46:17 These troops which came from there.
00:46:19 So this is where does he see it weakens the litter sphere and breaks to surface plates.
00:46:25 So there you see the interaction of how process in the mantle heat coming and plumes
00:46:31 and how they actually they modified a played boundary to make new played boundaries and break them apart
00:46:37 and start driving it but we don't know all the details but a kind of. And then the feedback back again.
00:46:46 So these things are going on
00:46:47 and then you have material which is which is subducting into the mantle which is slowly sinking.
00:46:55 What we call slabs that's very slow might take hundred fifty million years before it's reached lower
00:47:02 and that could actually be the triggering to disapproves because it's colder material coming down
00:47:08 and it triggers along these margin of these old Ressa was it triggers makes some turmoil instabilities and.
00:47:17 And makes this thing rise but of course all this is modeling is Terry nobody has been. So different opinion on this.
00:47:28 I have my opinion so. That's why I move on and go to climate gate.
00:47:34 And the other thing is could you sort of give the idea of this recycling
00:47:39 and changing continuously changing of the earth's crust and just let's say just service of the earth. Yes so what.
00:47:49 First of all all the sea floor is recycle all the time.
00:47:52 Remember And if you look at planet Earth to try out a planet is water just centrally where you have sea floor all.
00:48:00 Of that get subducted into the mountain.
00:48:02 So the old it's given an example the old A sea floor when you look at a planet today.
00:48:07 It's about one hundred eighty million asses and everything older than that has been recycled
00:48:13 and pushed into the mountain
00:48:15 when it comes to the continents to do as they damn well buoyant they don't really want to be pushed down into the
00:48:22 mountains so the day you see that fact that.
00:48:26 You feel you find mountain buildings like him say India collided with a sea and you.
00:48:32 You see the mountain building to death to deformed rocks. And the structure so.
00:48:39 But the most dramatic it's actually since the plan is to try to use oceans to that.
00:48:46 Get recycled all the time so the oldest one we can look at in the oceans today It's hundred eighteen of a hundred
00:48:54 and ninety min and yet that's tiny and.
00:48:57 It's like I said some less than ten percent of Earth's history so and that makes it trouble for us because
00:49:04 when I make Plate Tectonic model which old
00:49:07 and to in a minute if I have to make up the ocean because I need plates I have to make artificial spreading in some
00:49:14 sort of which makes sense to me so and that will cause us a strong component of Phillip's of him.
00:49:21 We just have to obey certain physical laws and Yamato and so forth
00:49:26 but you are basically a little down beyond the ice when it's older than twenty minutes. If it you're studying.
00:49:33 Recyclability of stone. Yeah yeah. So I said it's a big problem.
00:49:39 So Plate Tectonics is troublesome for a loop Koester is it is recycling all the time. And it's very very hard.
00:49:46 That's why I'm my dream is maybe to understand in some detail that for a billion yes
00:49:52 but of course a lot of that have to make up because all the oceans. Recycle all the time. So I only I left with a.
00:50:00 This one target of planets the continental crust which is deformed in various processes
00:50:06 and that's because that's where I have to see to sink in those two. To reconstruct a planet.
00:50:12 So your plan had a billion years.
00:50:14 Your plan adds I plan a billion yes at least and I think that's about twenty five percent about history
00:50:21 and I think that sets. There are people who try to go further but it becomes very fragmented and. Very little day.
00:50:31 So what about Iceland. Should you imagine this column called Iceland.
00:50:37 Yeah but again it's a little special because normally if if we were on the sea floor now and on them.
00:50:45 It's spreading boundary you would only make crust maybe five ten kilometer SEC And of course.
00:50:53 Iceland is actually much ticket because it has just extra plumes so to sickness here can be extreme up to it's not just
00:51:00 tell it's a sensing it is bubbling beneath you actually mean extreme sick pile of lava which could be maybe up to
00:51:08 twenty five forty kilometers some plans of it's actually almost like continental crust because you got so much input a
00:51:15 lot of it has been piling on top in the top so so say hey you have a very very very sick pile of lava. But of course.
00:51:24 In areas where you have to rifting today.
00:51:28 Not fall down day you're do have bubbling lava you know just waiting to explode
00:51:37 and decompression come up so you sometimes call it the pumping station you sometimes call it the plumbing. Yeah.
00:51:45 Because well it's it's a very complicated system of the way you have much rest of our own chamber and.
00:51:53 You don't always know how it's going to find its way to the surface but here in Iceland where.
00:52:00 We do a pretty good where the dome and central Canucks are
00:52:04 and you know that's where you can see that on a good Trammel fields
00:52:09 and they can use that to turn it into electricity so. That's what I do with them but look.
00:52:16 Most people wouldn't build a power station on top of all kind of but you know they do it. Used to. Well it's.
00:52:26 Iceland is it. It's their life.
00:52:30 You never know what's going to happen some but they have experienced it from towers and you know it is island
00:52:38 and used to it and it's still prospecting but again you see they take advantage so Plate Tectonics.
00:52:47 Because you have his height. Tell me a gradient would profit and.
00:52:50 You know groundwater reaching very fast two hundred degrees. So it's interesting about normal. If you were.
00:52:59 And Norway
00:53:00 or in a normal place you would have to drill one kilometer to get to target a degree you know it's got talk to
00:53:05 when you drill down.
00:53:06 It's kind of normal gradient it's total degrees per kilometer but in places said I drilled two hundred metres
00:53:16 and it was two hundred fifty degrees so. You get an idea.
00:53:20 There are some heat sources down there which is that's how we benefit. Yes so we benefit. OK All right.
00:53:32 That's all there. My my imagination Yeah. So it's where the crest fell five kilometers.
00:53:38 Yeah down to a value so you know yes it's already rest.
00:53:41 Yeah yeah because you're very close on plenty of the other way you're to know your story
00:53:48 and you know it's you know it's sad will be more around and this is just it's more into surface
00:53:56 when it's it's going through decompression and.
00:54:00 And a very deep for it's just some slowish more it's for probably a few hundred degrees hotter.
00:54:07 So it's just can't be too hot to see if you if you're a diamond to bring them up.
00:54:14 You cannot come with it if you put a diamond in to use. You know in a live Will Cain or you will ruin it.
00:54:22 Your dad will research it has to be.